Rutland is a city in and the shire town (county seat) of Rutland County, Vermont, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 16,495. Rutland is located approximately 65 miles (105 km) north of Massachusetts and 20 miles (32 km) east of New York state. Rutland is the third largest city in Vermont. It is surrounded by the town of Rutland, which is a separate municipality. The downtown area of the city is listed as a historic district on the National Register of Historic Places.